Memoirs of the faculty of engineering, Yamaguchi university


PISSN : 0372-7661
NCID : AN00244228

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This is the final part of the series of a case study on translation of a dubbed film from Japanese into English on a Cognitive Linguistics perspective. Focusing on Venuti' s (1995, 2013) domestication and foreignization in translation, Sadamitsu (2020) analyzed the gaps in language / culture and in time between the source and the target text of translation, and demonstrated that domesticated samples were found far more than foreignized ones in order to fill the gaps far more in language / culture than in time. Sadamitsu (2022) went on to conduct more precise analyses on how the translators have dealt with the gabs between the two languages by closely looking at their domesticating strategies for English readers/audience of the film. Specifically, their coping strategies of adding / deleting information of the source text were discussed there. And this paper will examine that of changing information of the source text, which was left untouched in the former papers, to conclude the research series. It will be also discussed here that translation activities are conducted under a powerful and invisible pressure which forces the translators to domesticate the contents more acceptable in the translated culture and society, apparently without noticing it.
PP. 10 - 16
Taxonomic classification of whole eukaryotes using conserved proteins or nucleotide sequences that are used as criteria looks convenient and easy. However, these methods may not be reliable to long evolutionary history if their function is developed or degenerated in their life history. The sequence-based classification methods depending on the functional conservation may cause unknown bias. In this study, we propose novel classification using intron positions in a gene, which are not related to function. Intron positions of highly conserved ribosomal protein RPS13 gene were selected as novel criteria for the classification of whole eukaryotes from lower unicellular amoeba, algae, and flagellates to plants and animals. RPS13 gene encodes 151 amino acids and possesses 453 bp exon sequence in many eukaryotic organisms. The intron positions are determined based on their coding exon sequences, in which all the introns are designated by the positions from the first nucleotide of the start codon and the position numbers are attached with ‘i’ for intron indication. For example, human RPS13 gene contains introns at the positions of 24i, 73i, 152i, 322i, and 423i sites on the coding sequence. Interestingly, all the Deuterostomia animals including starfish, leech, and octopus showed the same intron positions to human. Similarly, all the land plants showed 24i, 97i, 236i, and 423i positions. In lower unicellular eukaryotes, which showed nonintron or variety of positions, only amoeba Lenisia limosa has the intron position of 152i site and Chlorophyta Pedinophyceae sp. has single 97i position, suggesting that they may be the ancestral organisms of animals and plants, respectively. As a conclusion, intron positions of RPS13 gene can be used as a guide for the taxonomic classification of eukaryotic organisms
Ebe Satoshi Kunishige Haruna Chajima Kengo Nakamura Hitomi Nakamura Yuki Hayashi Chise Hirakawa Haruka Yamaji Keisuke Hoshida Hisashi 赤田 倫治
PP. 17 - 28