In order to elucidate the influence of hardness of the other test roller on the work hardening phenomenon of carbon steels, experiments were conducted on the quenched and tempered samples by using a Amslar-type rolling fatigue testing machine under a lubricated state with sliding. The results obtaind are summarizized as follows : 1) The hardness increments of S40C are higher than S10C. 2) The hardness increased by work hardening takes the maximum value when the revolution number of specimen goes up to about (1 2) X10^6. 3) The work hardening zone increases with increasing revolution number regardless of the other test roller. 4) The hardness increments of S40C increase with inceasing haradness of the other test roller.